ArcMap requires credits for geocoding. Geocoding used to be included with ArcMap, but as of several years ago, it is not included for all accounts and may be limited for some accounts.
ArcMap's support forums are full of people talking about getting geocoding errors and it turns out the issue was that they didn't have more geocoding credits—yet ArcMap didn't tell them that was the problem.
According to ArcGIS, "Batch geocode access: An ArcGIS Online organizational account is required to use the batch geocoding functionality provided by the World Geocoding Service. Successfully geocoded addresses, which return a status of Matched or Tied, cause ArcGIS Online service credits to be consumed for batch geocoding operations."
If you ran out of ArcGIS geocoding credits, you may have gotten an error from ArcMap such as "There was an error trying to process this table." It does not indicate that you've run out of credits.
Adding more credits to an ArcMap account can be complicated and expensive.
If you've ever uploaded a file to ArcMap, you probably know the stress of feeling like your file needs to be perfect, otherwise you're wasting credits and can't get them back.
With Geocodio's pay-as-you-go plan, you get 2,500 free lookups per day and are only charged for what you use. Charges are processed on the first of the following month, which means that if you make a mistake with your file, just email us and explain the situation (mistakes happen!) and we can remove the file so you aren't charged twice.
Geocodio supports geocoding and data matching (like Census FIPS codes and Congressional districts) in the US and Canada. Give it a try and see how much it might cost you below. No signup required.